The taxonomy of sharks and rays

The taxonomy of sharks and rays is a subject that remains in hot debate. Although the majority of elasmobranch families have been nailed down there will always be individual species that don’t quite fit the characteristics of their sibling species. Consequently species are occasionally reclassified or simply listed as awaiting review. One of the most confusing of families is the Potamotrygonidae; the freshwater stingrays of South America. Not only do these ray species adopt extremely varied patterns that are sometimes visually indistinguishable from other species, they also produce hybrids in certain parts of their ranges leaving us wondering what exactly a true species is anyway.

Among shark taxonomists, conservative estimates of the number of known shark species has now exceeded 500. Combined with 700 or more species of rays and skates, there are well over a thousand valid species of elasmobranchs. In the past, many more species were described only to be discounted later as being synonymous with elasmobranchs already described from other geographic areas. In recent years, this problem has lessened because taxonomic data has become easier to share over the internet. However, taxonomists are as vain as the rest of us and in their efforts to be the first to describe (and name) a new species, there is often a counterproductive lack of collaboration.

Some abyssal species have been described from only one or two specimens captured during deep water trawls. In all likelihood, there are probably many shark and ray species lurking on the abyssal plain that have not yet been seen or captured; a good example being the relatively recent discovery of the Megamouth Shark. If this enormous, slow moving shark could remain hidden until the 1980’s, who knows how many other elasmobranchs have gone unnoticed!

Following is a reasonably complete list of all accepted, extant species of elasmobranchs. Included at the bottom are the Holocephali (the chimaeras or ghost sharks) that share many characteristics with modern sharks and rays but are thought to be descended from a different group of cartilaginous fishes or ‘proto-sharks’ that thrived during the Late Devonian Period.

key to orders within the class chondrichthyes

Newly described sharks and rays

Occasionally new species of sharks and rays are described by science. In some cases they have been well known for a while e.g. the Western wobbegong but no one has gotten around to describing them in enough detail to be accepted by peer review. More exciting is when a deep water trawl or a lucky diving expedition uncovers a species that the scientific community was completely unaware of.

If you have information about new species that I have not yet added, please email me the information and I will add it to the list: info(at)

Description of the Dasyatidae – Whiptail Stingrays

Includes a key to identifying the genus of the Dasyatidae (Whiptail stingrays).

Description of the Potamotrygonidae – River Stingrays

Includes a key to identifying the genus of the Potamotrygonidae (River Stingrays).

Kingdom Metazoa – Animals

Phylum Chordata

Animals that at some point in their life cycle have the following: Pharyngeal slits (a series of openings connecting the inside of the throat to the outside of the neck. In fish these become gill slits), a dorsal nerve cord (a bundle of nerve fibres running down the back, connecting the brain with the organs and extremities), a notochord (a cartilaginous rod supporting the nerve cord), and a post anal tail (an extension of the ‘back’ past the anal opening).

Subphylum Vertebrata

Animals with a vertibral column or backbone and neural crest cells which are released as the nerve cord is forming, these cells move through the body to form major nerves, neural ganglia, and many head and facial features. Other features that separate vertebrates from other chordates include: a relatively well-developed brain, paired complex eyes, a muscularized mouth and pharynx, and a well-developed circulatory system with a heart.

Class Chondrichthyes

Cartilaginous fishes lacking true bone. Chondrichthyes can be split into two distinct subclasses ELASMOBRANCHII and HOLOCEPHALIMORPHA.

Subclass Elasmobranchii

Sharks, Skates and Rays (and some fossil relatives). Elasmobranchs have an upper jaw that is not fused to the braincase and 5-7 exposed gill openings.

Shark Orders

Carcharhiniformes – Ground Sharks

Heterodontiformes – Bullhead Sharks

Hexanchiformes – Sixgill, Sevengill and Frilled Sharks

Lamniformes – Mackerel Sharks

Orectolobiformes – Carpetsharks

Pristiophoriformes – Sawsharks

Squaliformes – Dogfish Sharks, sleeper sharks, gulper sharks and lantern sharks

Squatiniformes – Angelsharks


Ray Orders

Myliobatiformes – Stingrays, Eagle rays, Butterfly rays, Devil rays, Cownose rays

Rajiformes – Skates

Rhinopristiformes – Guitarfishes, Sawfishes

Torpediniformes – Electric rays

Subclass Holocephali

Includes forms with an upper jaw fused to the braincase and a flap of skin, the operculum, covering the gill slits. The Holocephalii includes the chimaeras and ratfishes, which are relatively rare, often deep-water, mollusc-eating forms.

Chimaera Orders

Chimaeriformes – Chimaeras, Elephantfishes

Superorder Selachii: Sharks


Family CARCHARHINIDAE – Requiem Sharks

Carcharhinus acronotus – Blacknose shark

Carcharhinus albimarginatus – Silvertip shark

Carcharhinus altimus – Bignose shark

Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides – Graceful shark

Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos – Grey reef shark

Carcharhinus amboinensis – Pigeye or Java shark

Carcharhinus borneensis – Borneo shark

Carcharhinus brachyurus – Copper shark or bronze whaler

Carcharhinus brevipinna – Spinner shark

Carcharhinus cautus – Nervous shark

Carcharhinus cerdale – Pacific smalltail shark

Carcharhinus coatesi Coates’s shark

Carcharhinus dussumieri – Whitecheek shark

Carcharhinus falciformis – Silky shark

Carcharhinus fitzroyensis – Creek whaler

Carcharhinus galapagenisis – Galapagos shark

Carcharhinus hemiodon – Pondicherry shark

Carcharhinus humaniHuman’s whaler shark

Carcharhinus isodon – Finetooth shark

Carcharhinus leiodon – Smoothtooth blacktip shark

Carcharhinus leucas – Bull or Zambezi shark

Carcharhinus limbatus – Blacktip shark

Carcharhinus longimanus – Oceanic whitetip shark

Carcharhinus macloti – Hardnose shark

Carcharhinus melanopterus – Blacktip reef shark

Carcharhinus obscurus – Dusky shark

Carcharhinus obsolerus – Lost shark

Carcharhinus perezi – Caribbean reef shark

Carcharhinus plumbeus – Sandbar shark

Carcharhinus porosus – Smalltail shark

Carcharhinus sealei – Blackspot shark

Carcharhinus signatus – Night shark

Carcharhinus sorrah – Spottail shark

Carcharhinus tilstoni – Australian blacktip shark

Carcharhinus tjutjot – Indonesian whaler shark

Glyphis fowleraeBorneo river shark

Glyphis gangeticus – Ganges shark

Glyphis garricki – Northern river shark

Glyphis glyphis – Speartooth shark

Glyphis siamensis – Irrawaddy river shark

Glyphis sp. – Mukah river shark

Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus – Daggernose shark

Lamiopsis tephrodes – Borneo broadfin shark

Lamiopsis temmincki – Broadfin shark

Loxodon macrorhinus – Sliteye shark

Nasolamia velox – Whitenose shark

Negraprion acutidens – Sharptooth lemon shark

Negraprion brevirostris – Lemon shark

Prionace glauca – Blue shark

Rhizoprionodon acutus – Milk shark

Rhizoprionodon lalandei – Brazilian sharpnose shark

Rhizoprionodon longurio – Pacific sharpnose shark

Rhizoprionodon oligolinx – Grey sharpnose shark

Rhizopriondon porosus – Caribbean sharpnose shark

Rhizopriondon taylori – Australian sharpnose shark

Rhizopriondon terraenovae – Atlantic sharpnose shark

Scoliodon laticaudus – Spadenose shark

Scoliodon macrorhynchos – Pacific spadenose shark

Triaenodon obesus – Whitetip reef shark


Family GALEOCERDONIDAE – Tiger Sharks

Galeocerdo cuvier – Tiger shark


Family HEMIGALEIDAE – Weasel Sharks

Chaenogaleus macrostoma – Hooktooth shark

Hemigaleus microstoma – Sicklefin weasel shark

Hemipristis elongatus – Snaggletooth shark

Paragaleus leucolomatus – Whitetip weasel shark

Paragaleus pectoralis – Atlantic weasel shark

Paragaleus tengi – Straighttooth weasel shark


Family LEPTOCHARIIDAE – Barbeled Houndshark

Leptocharias smithii – Barbeled houndshark


Family PROSCYLLIDAE – Finback Catsharks

Ctenacis fehlmanni – Harlequin catshark

Eridacnis barbouri – Cuban ribbontail catshark

Eridacnis radcliffei – Pygmy ribbontail catshark

Eridacnis sinuans – African ribbontail catshark

Gollum attentuatus – Slender smoothhound

Proscyllium habereri – Graceful catshark


Family PSEUDOTRIAKIDAE – False Catsharks

Pseudotriakis microdon – False catshark


Family PENTANCHIDAE – Deepsea Catsharks

Apristurus albisoma – Nakaya & Séret, 1999 (White-bodied catshark)

Apristurus ampliceps – Sasahara, K. Sato & Nakaya, 2008 (Roughskin catshark)

Apristurus aphyodes – Nakaya & Stehmann, 1998 (White ghost catshark)

Apristurus australis – K. Sato, Nakaya & Yorozu, 2008 (Pinocchio catshark)

Apristurus breviventralis – Kawauchi, Weigmann & Nakaya, 2014 (Shortbelly catshark) [2]

Apristurus brunneus – Brown catshark

Apristurus bucephalus – W. T. White, Last & Pogonoski, 2008 (Bighead catshark)

Apristurus canutus – S. Springer & Heemstra, 1979 (Hoary catshark)

Apristurus exsanguis – K. Sato, Nakaya & A. L. Stewart, 1999 (Flaccid catshark)

Apristurus fedorovi – Dolganov, 1985 (Fedorov’s catshark)

Apristurus garricki – K. Sato, A. L. Stewart & Nakaya, 2013 (Garrick’s catshark) [3]

Apristurus gibbosus – Y. T. Chu, Q. W. Meng & S. Li, 1985 (Humpback catshark)

Apristurus herklotsi – Fowler, 1934 (Longfin catshark)

Apristurus indicus – A. B. Brauer, 1906 (Smallbelly catshark)

Apristurus internatus – S. M. Deng, G. Q. Xiong & H. X. Zhan, 1988 (Shortnose demon catshark)

Apristurus investigatoris – Misra, 1962 (Broadnose catshark)

Apristurus japonicus – Nakaya, 1975 (Japanese catshark)

Apristurus kampae – L. R. Taylor, 1972 (Longnose catshark)

Apristurus laurussonii – Sæmundsson, 1922 (Iceland catshark)

Apristurus longicephalus – Nakaya, 1975 (Longhead catshark)

Apristurus macrorhynchus – S. Tanaka (I), 1909 (Flathead catshark)

Apristurus macrostomus – Q. W. Meng, Y. T. Chu & S. Li, 1985 (Broadmouth catshark)

Apristurus manis – S. Springer, 1979 (Ghost catshark)

Apristurus melanoasper – Iglésias, Nakaya & Stehmann, 2004 (Black roughscale catshark)

Apristurus microps – Gilchrist, 1922 (Smalleye catshark)

Apristurus micropterygeus – Q. W. Meng, Y. T. Chu & S. Li, 1986 (Smalldorsal catshark)

Apristurus nakayai – Iglésias, 2013 (Milk-eye catshark) [4]

Apristurus nasutus – F. de Buen, 1959 (Largenose catshark)

Apristurus ovicorrugatus – W. White 2023 (Corrugated Egg Catshark)

Apristurus parvipinnis – S. Springer & Heemstra, 1979 (Smallfin catshark)

Apristurus pinguis – S. M. Deng, G. Q. Xiong & H. X. Zhan, 1983 (Bulldog catshark)

Apristurus platyrhynchus – S. Tanaka (I), 1909 (Spatulasnout catshark or Borneo catshark)

Apristurus profundorum – Goode & T. H. Bean, 1896 (Deepwater catshark)

Apristurus riveri – Bigelow & Schroeder, 1944 (Broadgill catshark)

Apristurus saldanha – Barnard, 1925 (Saldanha catshark)

Apristurus sibogae – M. C. W. Weber, 1913 (Pale catshark)

Apristurus sinensis – Y. T. Chu & A. S. Hu, 1981 (South China catshark)

Apristurus spongiceps – C. H. Gilbert, 1905 (Spongehead catshark)

Apristurus stenseni – S. Springer, 1979 (Panama ghost catshark)

Apristurus sp. X – Not yet described (Galbraith’s catshark)

Apristurus sp. 3 – Not yet described (Black wonder catshark)

Apristurus sp. – nov. Not yet described (White-edged catshark)

Apristurus sp. – Not yet described (Gray ghost catshark)

Asymbolus analis – (J. D. Ogilby, 1885) (Australian spotted catshark)

Asymbolus funebris – Compagno, Stevens & Last, 1999 (Blotched catshark)

Asymbolus galacticus – Séret & Last, 2008 (Starry catshark)

Asymbolus occiduus – Last, M. F. Gomon & Gledhill, 1999 (Western spotted catshark)

Asymbolus pallidus – Last, M. F. Gomon & Gledhill, 1999 (Pale spotted catshark)

Asymbolus parvus – Compagno, Stevens & Last, 1999 (Dwarf catshark)

Asymbolus rubiginosus – Last, M. F. Gomon & Gledhill, 1999 (Orange-spotted catshark)

Asymbolus submaculatus – Compagno, Stevens & Last, 1999 (Variegated catshark)

Asymbolus vincenti – (Zietz (fi), 1908) (Gulf catshark)

Bythaelurus alcockii – (Garman, 1913) (Arabian catshark) [1]

Bythaelurus canescens – (Günther, 1878) (Dusky catshark)

Bythaelurus clevai – (Séret, 1987) (Broadhead catshark)

Bythaelurus dawsoni – (S. Springer, 1971) (New Zealand catshark)

Bythaelurus giddingsi – J. E. McCosker, Long & C. C. Baldwin, 2012 (Galápagos catshark)

Bythaelurus hispidus – (Alcock, 1891) (Bristly catshark)

Bythaelurus immaculatus – (Y. T. Chu & Q. W. Meng, 1982) (Spotless catshark)

Bythaelurus incanus – Last & J. D. Stevens, 2008 (Sombre catshark)

Bythaelurus lutarius – (S. Springer & D’Aubrey, 1972) (Mud catshark)

Bythaelurus naylori – Ebert & Clerkin, 2015 (Dusky snout catshark) [1]

Bythaelurus stewarti – Weigmann, Kaschner, and Thiel, 2018 (Error Seamount catshark)[2]

Bythaelurus tenuicephalus – Kaschner, Weigmann & Thiel, 2015 (Narrowhead catshark) [3]

Cephalurus cephalus – Lollipop catshark

Figaro boardmani – (Whitley, 1928) (Australian sawtail catshark)

Figaro striatus – Gledhill, Last & W. T. White, 2008 (Northern sawtail catshark)

Galeus antillensis – S. Springer, 1979 (Antilles catshark)

Galeus arae – Nichols, 1927 (Roughtail catshark)

Galeus atlanticus – Vaillant, 1888 (Atlantic sawtail catshark)

Galeus cadenati – S. Springer, 1966 (Longfin sawtail catshark)

Galeus eastmani – D. S. Jordan & Snyder, 1904 (Gecko catshark)

Galeus friedrichi – Friedrich’s Sawtail Catshark (Ebert 2022)

Galeus gracilis – Compagno & Stevens, 1993 (Slender sawtail catshark)

Galeus longirostris – Tachikawa & Taniuchi, 1987 (Longnose sawtail catshark)

Galeus melastomus – Rafinesque, 1810 (Blackmouth catshark)

Galeus mincaronei – Soto, 2001 (Southern sawtail catshark)

Galeus murinus – Collett, 1904 (Mouse catshark)

Galeus nipponensis – Nakaya, 1975 (Broadfin sawtail catshark)

Galeus piperatus – S. Springer & M. H. Wagner, 1966 (Peppered catshark)

Galeus polli – Cadenat, 1959 (African sawtail catshark)

Galeus priapus – Séret & Last, 2008 (Phallic catshark)

Galeus sauteri – D. S. Jordan & R. E. Richardson, 1909 (Blacktip sawtail catshark)

Galeus schultzi – S. Springer, 1979 (Dwarf sawtail catshark)

Galeus springeri – Konstantinou & Cozzi, 1998 (Springer’s sawtail catshark)

Halaelurus boesemani – S. Springer & D’Aubrey, 1972 (Speckled catshark)

Halaelurus buergeri – (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1838) (Blackspotted catshark)

Halaelurus lineatus – Bass, D’Aubrey & Kistnasamy, 1975 (Lined catshark)

Halaelurus maculosus – W. T. White, Last & Stevens, 2007 (Indonesian speckled catshark)

Halaelurus natalensis – Tiger catshark

Halaelurus quagga – (Alcock, 1899) (Quagga catshark)

Halaelurus sellus – W. T. White, Last & Stevens, 2007 (Rusty catshark)

Haploblepharus edwardsii – Puffadder shyshark

Haploblepharus fuscus – Brown shyshark

Haploblepharus kistnasamyi – (Human & Compagno, 2006) Natal shyshark

Haploblepharus pictus – Dark shyshark

Holohalaelurus favus – Human, 2006 (Honeycomb Izak)

Holohalaelurus grennian – Human, 2006 (Grinning Izak)

Holohalaelurus melanostigma – (Norman, 1939) (Crying Izak)

Holohalaelurus punctatus – (Gilchrist, 1914) (White-spotted Izak)

Holohalaelurus regani – (Gilchrist, 1922) (Izak catshark)

Parmaturus albimarginatus – Séret & Last, 2007 (White-tip catshark)

Parmaturus albipenis – Séret & Last, 2007 (White-clasper catshark)

Parmaturus p. angelae – Soares, Carvalho, et al, 2019

Parmaturus bigus – Séret & Last, 2007 (Beige catshark)

Parmaturus campechiensis – S. Springer, 1979 (Campeche catshark)

Parmaturus lanatus – Séret & Last, 2007 (Velvet catshark)

Parmaturus macmillani – Hardy, 1985 (McMillan’s cat shark)

Parmaturus melanobranchus – (W. L. Y. Chan, 1966) (Blackgill catshark)

Parmaturus pilosus – Garman, 1906 (Salamander shark)

Parmaturus xaniurus – Filetail catshark

Parmaturus sp. – Not yet described (Roughback catshark)

Parmaturus sp. – Not yet described (Indonesian filetail catshark)

Parmaturus sp. – Not yet described (Gulf of Mexico filetail)

Pentanchus profundicolus – Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. 2011 (Onefin catshark)


Family SCYLIORHINIDAE – Catsharks

Atelomycterus baliensis – W. T. White, Last & Dharmadi, 2005 (Bali catshark)

Atelomycterus erdmanni – Fahmi & W. T. White, 2015 (Spotted-belly catshark) [1]

Atelomycterus fasciatus – Compagno & Stevens, 1993 (Banded sand catshark)

Atelomycterus macleayi – Whitley, 1939 (Australian marbled catshark)

Atelomycterus marmoratus – Coral catshark

Atelomycterus marnkalha – Jacobsen & M. B. Bennett, 2007 (Eastern banded catshark)

Aulohalaelurus kanakorum – Séret, 1990 (Kanakorum catshark)

Aulohalaelurus labiosus – Waite, 1905 (Australian blackspotted catshark)

Cephaloscyllium albipinnum – Last, Motomura & W. T. White, 2008 (Whitefin swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium cooki – Last, Séret & W. T. White, 2008 (Cook’s swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium fasciatum – W. L. Y. Chan, 1966 (Reticulated swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium hiscosellum – W. T. White & Ebert, 2008 (Australian reticulate swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium isabellum – Bonnaterre, 1788 (Draughtsboard shark)

Cephaloscyllium laticeps – Australian swellshark

Cephaloscyllium pictum – Last, Séret & W. T. White, 2008 (Painted swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium sarawakensis – Ka. Yano, A. Ahmad & Gambang, 2005 (Sarawak pygmy swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium signourum – Last, Séret & W. T. White, 2008 (Flagtail swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium silasi – Talwar, 1974 (Indian swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium speccum – Last, Séret & W. T. White, 2008 (Speckled swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium stevensi – E. Clark & J. E. Randall, 2011 (Steven’s swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium sufflans – Regan, 1921 (Balloon shark)

Cephaloscyllium umbratile – Blotchy swellshark

Cephaloscyllium variegatum – Last, Séret & W. T. White, 2008 (Saddled swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium ventriosum – Swellshark

Cephaloscyllium zebrum – Last, Séret & W. T. White, 2008 (Narrowbar swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium sp. – Not yet described (Philippine swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium sp. – Not yet described (Tiger swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium sp. – Not yet described (New Guinea swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium sp. – Not yet described (Dwarf balloon shark)

Cephaloscyllium sp. – Not yet described (Dwarf oriental swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium sp. – Not yet described (New Caledonia swellshark)

Cephaloscyllium sp. – Not yet described (Red Sea swellshark)

Poroderma africanum – Pyjama catshark

Poroderma pantherinum – Leopard catshark

Schroederichthys bivius – (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1838) (Narrowmouthed catshark)

Schroederichthys chilensis – Redspotted catshark

Schroederichthys maculatus – S. Springer, 1966 (Narrowtail catshark)

Schroederichthys saurisqualus – Soto, 2001 (Lizard catshark)

Schroederichthys tenuis – S. Springer, 1966 (Slender catshark)

Scyliorhinus boa – Goode & T. H. Bean, 1896 (Boa catshark)

Scyliorhinus cabofriensis – K. D. A. Soares, U. L. Gomes & M. R. de Carvalho, 2016

Scyliorhinus canicula – Smallspotted catshark

Scyliorhinus capensis – (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1838) (Yellowspotted catshark)

Scyliorhinus cervigoni – Maurin & M. Bonnet, 1970 (West African catshark)

Scyliorhinus comoroensis – L. J. V. Compagno, 1988 (Comoro catshark)

Scyliorhinus dumamelii – Garman 1913 Southern Small-spotted Catshark

Scyliorhinus garmani – (Fowler, 1934) (Brownspotted catshark)

Scyliorhinus hachijoensis – Izu Islands catshark (Nanami Ito, et all. 2022)

Scyliorhinus haeckelii – (A. Miranda-Ribeiro, 1907) (Freckled catshark)

Scyliorhinus hesperius – Whitesaddled catshark

Scyliorhinus meadi – S. Springer, 1966 (Blotched catshark)

Scyliorhinus retifer – Chain catshark

Scyliorhinus stellaris – (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nursehound)

Scyliorhinus tokubee – Shirai, S. Hagiwara & Nakaya, 1992 (Izu catshark)

Scyliorhinus torazame – (S. Tanaka (I), 1908) (Cloudy catshark)

Scyliorhinus torrei – Howell-Rivero, 1936 (Dwarf catshark)

Scyliorhinus ugoi – K. D. A. Soares, Gadig & U. L. Gomes, 2015 (Dark freckled catshark)


Family SPHYRNIDAE – Hammerhead Sharks

Eusphyra blochii – Winghead shark

Sphyrna corona – Mallethead shark

Sphyrna gilberti – Carolina hammerhead

Sphyrna lewini – Scalloped hammerhead

Sphyrna media – Scoophead shark

Sphyrna mokarran – Great hammerhead

Sphyrna tiburo – Bonnethead shark

Sphyrna tudes – Smalleye hammerhead

Sphyrna zygaena – Smooth hammerhead


Family TRIAKIDAE – Houndsharks

Furgaleus macki – Whiskery shark

Galeorhinus galeus – Tope shark

Gogolia filewoodi – Sailback houndshark

Hemitriakis japanica – Japanese topeshark

Hemitriakis leucoperiptera – Whitefin topeshark

Hypogaleus hyugaensis – Blacktip topeshark

Iago garricki – Longnose houndshark

Iago omanensis – Bigeye houndshark

Mustelus albipinnis – Whitemargin Smoothhound (aka M.hacat)

Mustelus andamanensis – Andaman smoothhound shark

Mustelus antarcticus – Gummy shark

Mustelus asterias – Starry smoothhound

Mustelus californicus – Grey smoothhound

Mustelus canis – Dusky smoothhound / Smooth Dogfish

Mustelus dorsalis – Sharpnose smoothhound

Mustelus fasciatus – Striped smoothhound

Mustelus griseus – Spotless smoothhound

Mustelus henlei – Brown smoothhound

Mustelus higmani – Smalleye smoothhound

Mustelus lenticulatus – Spotted estuary smoothhound or rig

Mustelus lunulatus – Sicklefin smoothhound

Mustelus manazo – Starspotted smoothhound

Mustelus mento – Speckled smoothhound

Mustelus mosis – Arabian, hardnose, or Moses smoothhound

Mustelus mustelus – Smoothhound

Mustelus norrisi – Narrowfin or Florida smoothhound

Mustelus palumbes – Whitespot smoothhound

Mustelus punctulatus – Blackspot smoothhound

Mustelus schmitti – Narrownose smoothhound

Mustelus sinusmexicanus – Gulf of Mexico smoothhound

Mustelus whitneyi – Humpback smoothhound

Scylliogaleus quecketti – Flapnose houndshark

Triakis acutipinna – Sharpfin houndshark

Triakis maculata – Spotted houndshark

Triakis megalopterus – Sharptooth houndshark or spotted gully shark

Triakis scyllium – Banded houndshark

Triakis semifasciata – Leopard houndshark

Order HEXANCHIFORMES - Sixgill, Sevengill and Frilled Sharks

Family CHLAMYDOSELA – Frilled Sharks

Chlamydoselachus anguineus – Frilled shark

Family HEXANCHIDAE – Sixgill and Sevengill Sharks

Heptranchias perlo – Sharpnose sevengill shark

Hexanchus griseus – Bluntnose sixgill shark

Hexanchus nakamurai – Bigeye sixgill shark

Hexanchus vitulus – Atlantic sixgill shark

Notorynchus cepedianus – Broadnose sevengill shark

Order LAMNIFORMES - Mackerel Sharks

Family ALOPIIDAE – Thresher Sharks

Alopias pelagicus – Pelagic thresher shark

Alopias superciliosus – Bigeye thresher shark

Alopias vulpinus – Common thresher shark


Family CARCHARIIDAE – Sandtiger Sharks

Carcharias taurus – Sand tiger, spotted raggedtooth, or grey nurse shark


Family CETORHINIDAE – Basking Sharks

Cetorhinus maximus – Basking shark

Family LAMNIDAE – Mackerel Sharks

Carcharodon carcharias – Great white shark

Isurus oxyrinchus – Shortfin mako

Isurus paucus – Longfin mako

Lamna ditropis – Salmon shark

Lamna nasus – Porbeagle shark


Family MEGACHASMIDAE – Megamouth Sharks

Megachasma pelagios – Megamouth Shark


Family MITSUKURINIDAE – Goblin Sharks

Mitsukurina owstoni – Goblin shark


Family ODONTASPIDIDAE – Sand Tiger Sharks

Odontaspis ferox – Smalltooth sand tiger or bumpytail raggedtooth

Odontaspis noronhai – Bigeye sand tiger


Family PSEUDOCARCHARIDAE – Crocodile Sharks

Pseudocarcharias kamoharai – Crocodile shark

Order ORECTOLOBIFORMES - Carpetsharks

Family BRACHAELURIDAE – Blind Sharks

Brachaelurus waddi – Blind shark

Brachaelurus colcloughi – Colclough’s shark



Psuedoginglymostoma brevicaudatum – Shorttail nurse shark

Ginglymostoma cirratum – Nurse shark

Ginglymostoma unami – Pacific nurse shark

Nebrius ferrugineus – Tawny nurse shark


Family HEMISCYLLIDAE – Longtailed Carpetsharks

Chiloscyllium arabicum – Arabian carpetshark

Chiloscyllium burmensis – Burmese bambooshark

Chiloscyllium caeruleopunctatum – Bluespotted bambooshark

Chiloscyllium griseum – Grey bambooshark

Chiloscyllium hasselti – Indonesian bambooshark

Chiloscyllium indicum – Slender bambooshark

Chiloscyllium magnus – Greater bambooshark

Chiloscyllium plagiosum – Whitespotted bambooshark

Chiloscyllium punctatum – Brownbanded bambooshark

Chiloscyllium c.f. punctatum – Malagasy Bamboo Shark

Hemiscyllium freycineti – Indonesian speckled carpetshark

Hemiscyllium galei – Cendrawasi epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium hallstromi – Papuan epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium halmahera – Halmahera epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium henryi – Henry’s epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium michaeli – Leopard epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium ocellatum – Epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium strahani – Hooded epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium trispeculare – Speckled carpetshark


Family ORECTOLOBIDAE – Wobbegong Sharks

Eucrossorhinus dasypogon – Tasselled wobbegong

Orectolobus floridus – Floral wobbegong

Orectolobus halei – Banded wobbegong

Orectolobus hutchinsi – Western wobbegong

Orectolobus japonicus – Japanese wobbegong

Orectolobus leptolineatus – Indonesian wobbegong

Orectolobus maculatus – Spotted wobbegong

Orectolobus ornatus – Ornate wobbegong

Orectolobus parvimaculatus – Dwarf spotted wobbegong

Orectolobus reticulatus – Network wobbegong

Orectolobus sp. A – Papuan wobbegong

Orectolobus wardi – Northern wobbegong

Sutorectus tentaculatus – Cobbler wobbegong


Family PARASCYLLIDAE – Collared Carpetsharks

Cirrhoscyllium expolitum – Barbelthroat carpetshark

Cirrhoscyllium formosanum – Taiwan saddled carpetshark

Cirrhoscyllium japonicum – Saddled carpetshark

Parascyllium collare – Collared carpetshark

Parascyllium elongatum – Elongate carpetshark

Parascyllium ferrugineum – Rusty carpetshark

Parascyllium sparsimaculatum – Sparsely spotted carpetshark

Parascyllium variolatum – Necklace carpetshark or Varied carpetshark


Family RHINCODONTIDAE – Whale Sharks

Rhincodon typus – Whale shark


Family STEGOSTOMATIDAE – Zebra Sharks

Stegostoma fasciatum – Zebra shark


Family PRISTIOPHORIDAE – Sawsharks

Pristiophorus nancyae – African dwarf sawshark

Pliotrema warreni – Sixgill sawshark

Pristiophorus cirratus – Longnose sawshark

Pristiophorus japonicus – Japanese sawshark

Pristiophorus nudipinnis – Shortnose sawshark

Pristiophorus schroederi – Bahamas sawshark

Order SQUALIFORMES - Dogfish Sharks

Family CENTROPHORIDAE – Gulper Sharks

Centrophorus acus – Needle dogfish

Centrophorus granulosus – Gulper shark

Centrophorus harrissoni – Dumb gulper shark

Centrophorus isodon – Blackfin gulper shark

Centrophorus lusitanicus – Lowfin gulper shark

Centrophorus moluccensis – Smallfin gulper shark

Centrophorus niaukang – Taiwan gulper shark

Centrophorus squamosus – Leafscale gulper shark

Centrophorus tesselatus – Mosaic gulper shark

Centrophorus uyato – Little gulper shark

Deania calcea – Birdbeak dogfish

Deania hystricosum – Rough longnose dogfish

Deania profundorum – Arrowhead dogfish

Deania quadrispinosum – Longsnout dogfish


Family DALATIIDAE – Kitefin Sharks

Dalatias licha – Kitefin shark

Euprotomicroides zantedeschia – Taillight shark

Europtomicrus bispinatus – Pygmy shark

Heteroscymnoides marleyi – Longnose pygmy shark

Isistius brasiliensis – Cookiecutter or cigar shark

Isistius plutodus – Largetooth cookiecutter shark

Mollisquama mississippiensis – Grace et al, 2019. Mississippi kitefin shark

Mollisquama parini – Softskin dogfish

Squaliolus laticaudus – Spined pygmy shark


Family ECHINORHINIDAE – Bramble Sharks

Echinorhinus brucus – Bramble shark

Echinorhinus cookei – Prickly shark


Family ETMOPTERIDAE – Lantern Sharks

Aculeola nigra – Hooktooth dogfish

Centroscyllium fabricii – Black dogfish

Centroscyllium granulatum – Granular dogfish

Centroscyllium kamoharai – Bareskin dogfish

Centroscyllium nigrum – Combtooth dogfish

Centroscyllium ornatum – Ornate dogfish

Centroscyllium ritteri – Whitefin dogfish

Etmopterus baxteri – New Zealand lanternshark

Etmopterus benchleyi – Benchley’s lanternshark

Etmopterus brachyurus – Shorttail lanternshark

Etmopterus brosei Brose’s lanternshark

Etmopterus bullisi – Lined lanternshark

Etmopterus carteri – Cylindrical lanternshark

Etmopterus decacuspidatus – Combtooth lanternshark

Etmopterus gracilispinis – Broadband lanternshark

Etmopterus granulosus – Southern lanternshark

Etmopterus hillianus – Carribean lanternshark

Etmopterus lucifer – Blackbelly lanternshark

Etmopterus perryi – Dwarf lanternshark

Etmopterus polli – African lanternshark

Etmopterus princeps – Great lanternshark

Etmopterus pusillus – Smooth lanternshark

Etmopterus schultzi – Fringefin lanternshark

Etmopterus sentosus – Thorny lanternshark

Etmopterus spinax – Velvet belly lanternshark

Etmopterus unicolor – Brown lanternshark

Etmopterus villosus – Hawaiian lanternshark

Etmopterus virens – Green lanternshark


Family SOMNIOSIDAE – Sleeper Sharks

Centroscymnus coelolepis – Portuguese dogfish

Centroscymnus crepidater – Longnose velvet dogfish

Centroscymnus cryptacanthus – Shortnose velvet dogfish

Centroscymnus macracanthus – Largespine velvet dogfish

Centroscymnus owstoni – Roughskin dogfish

Centroscymnus plunketi – Plunket shark

Scymnodalatias sherwoodi – Sherwood dogfish

Scymnodon ichiharai – Japanese velvet dogfish

Scymnodon ringens – Knifetooth dogfish

Scymnodon squamulosus – Greenland sleeper shark

Somniosus microcephalus – Greenland Shark

Somniosus pacificus – Pacific sleeper shark

Somniosus rostratus – Little sleeper shark


Family SQUALIDAE – Dogfish Sharks

Cirrhigaleus asper – Roughskin spurdog

Cirrhigaleus australis – Southern mandarin dogfish

Cirrhigaleus barbifer – Mandarin dogfish

Squalus acanthias – Spiny dogfish

Squalus albifrons – Eastern highfin spurdog

Squalus altipinnis – Western highfin spurdog

Squalus blainvillei – Longnose spurdog

Squalus brevirostris – Japanese shortnose spurdog

Squalus bucephalus – Bighead spurdog

Squalus chloroculus – Greeneye spurdog

Squalus crassispinus – Fatspine spurdog

Squalus cubensis – Cuban dogfish

Squalus edmundsi – Edmund’s spurdog

Squalus formosus – Taiwan spurdog

Squalus grahami – Eastern longnose spurdog

Squalus griffini – Northern spiny dogfish

Squalus hawaiiensis – Hawaiian dogfish

Squalus hemipinnis – Indonesian shortsnout spurdog

Squalus japonicus – Japanese spurdog

Squalus lalannei – Seychelles spurdog

Squalus longispinis – Longspine spurdog

Squalus megalops – Shortnose spurdog

Squalus melanurus – Blacktail spurdog

Squalus mitsukurii – Shortspine spurdog

Squalus montalbani – Indonesian greeneye spurdog

Squatina nasutus – Western longnosed spurdog

Squalus notocaudatus – Bartail spurdog

Squalus rancureli – Cyrano spurdog

Squalus raoulensis – Kermadec spiny dogfish

Squalus suckleyi – North Pacific spiny dogfish


Family OXYNOTIDAE – Roughsharks

Oxynotus bruniensis – Prickly dogfish

Oxynotus carribaeus – Carribean roughshark

Oxynotus centrina – Angular roughshark

Oxynotus japonicus – Japanese roughshark

Oxynotus paradoxus – Sailfin roughshark

Order SQUATINIFORMES - Angelsharks

Family SQUATINIDAE – Angelsharks

Squatina aculeata – Sawback angelshark

Squatina africana – African angelshark

Squatina albipunctata – Eastern Australian angelshark

Squatina argentina – Argentine angelshark

Squatina armata – Chilean angelshark

Squatina australis – Australian angelshark

Squatina caillieti – Philippine angelshark

Squatina californica – Pacific angelshark

Squatina david – Davids angelshark

Squatina dumeril – Sand devil

Squatina formosa – Taiwan angelshark

Squatina guggenheim – Angular angelshark

Squatina heteroptera – Disparate angelshark

Squatina japonica – Japanese angelshark

Squatina leae – Lea’s angelshark

Squatina legnota – Indonesian angelshark

Squatina mapama – Caribbean angelshark

Squatina mexicana – Mexican angelshark

Squatina nebulosa – Clouded angelshark

Squatina occulta – Hidden angelshark

Squatina oculata – Smoothback angelshark

Squatina pseudocellata – Western angelshark

Squatina punctata – Pointed angelshark

Squatina squatina – Common angelshark

Squatina tergocellata – Ornate angelshark

Squatina tergocellatoides – Ocellated angelshark

Superorder Batoidea: Rays

Order MYLIOBATIFORMES - Stingrays, Eagle rays, Devil rays

Family AETOBATIDAE – Pelagic Eagle Rays

Aetobatus flagellum (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Longhead eagle ray

Aetobatus laticeps – Pacific spotted eagle ray

Aetobatus narinari – Spotted eagle ray

Aetobatus narutobiei (White, Furumitsu, Yamaguchi, 2013) Naru eagle ray

Aetobatus ocellatus – Ocellated eagle ray


Family DASYATIDAE – Whiptail Stingrays

Bathytoshia brevicaudata – Short-tail stingray

Bathytoshia centroura – Roughtail stingray

Bathytoshia lata – Brown stingray

Brevitrygon heterura (Bleeker, 1852) Dwarf whipray

Brevitrygon imbricata (Bloch and Achneider, 1801) Bengal whipray

Brevitrygon javanensis (Last and White, 2013) Javan whipray

Brevitrygon manjajiae – Sandwich-tail whipray

Brevitrygon walga (Muller and Henle, 1841) Scaly whipray

Dasyatis chrysonota – Blue stingray

Dasyatis hypostigma – Groovebelly stingray

Dasyatis marmorata (Steindachner 1892) Marbled stingray

Dasyatis pastinaca – Common stingray

Dasyatis tortonesei – Tortonese’s stingray

Fluvitrygon kittipongi (Vidthayanon and Roberts, 2006) Roughback whipray

Fluvitrygon oxyrhynchus (Sauvage, 1878) Marbled whipray

Fluvitrygon signifer (Compagno & Roberts, 1982) White-edge freshwater whip ray

Fontitrygon colarensis (Santos, 2004) Colares stingray

Fontitrygon garouaensis (Stauch & Blanc, 1962) Smooth freshwater stingray

Fontitrygon geijskesi Boeseman, 1948Sharpsnout stingray

Fontitrygon margarita (Günther, 1870) Daisy stingray

Fontitrygon margaritella – Pearl stingray

Fontitrygon ukpam (Smith, 1863) Thorny freshwater stingray

Hemitrygon akajei – Red stingray

Hemitrygon bennetti (Müller & Henle, 1841) Bennett’s stingray

Hemitrygon fluviorum (Ogilby, 1908) Estuary stingray

Hemitrygon izuensis – Izu stingray

Hemitrygon laevigata (Chu, 1960) Yantai stingray

Hemitrygon laosensis (Roberts & Karnasuta, 1987) Mekong stingray

Hemitrygon longicauda (Last and White, 2013) Merauke Stingray

Hemitrygon navarrae (Steindachner, 1892) Oriental black stingray

Hemitrygon parvonigra (Last & White, 2008) Dwarf black stingray

Hemitrygon sinensis (Steindachner, 1892) Chinese stingray

Himantura australis (Last, White and Naylor, 2016) Australian whipray

Himantura leoparda – Leopard Whipray

Himantura uarnak – Coach whipray

Himantura undulata (Bleeker, 1852) Honeycomb whipray

Hypanus americanus – Southern stingray

Hypanus berthalutzae – Lutz’s stingray

Hypanus dipterurus – Diamond stingray

Hypanus guttatus – Longnose stingray

Hypanus longa – Longtail stingray

Hypanus marianae – Brazilian large-eyed stingray

Hypanus rudis (Günther, 1870) Smalltooth stingray

Hypanus sabinus – Atlantic stingray

Hypanus say – Bluntnose stingray

Maculabatis ambigua (Last, Bogorodsky and Alpermann, 2016) Bakara’s whipray

Maculabatis arabica (Manjaji-Matsumoto and Last, 2016) Pakistan whipray

Maculabatis astra (Last, Manjaji-Matsumoto and Pogonoski, 2008) Blackspotted whipray

Maculabatis bineeshi (Manjaji-Matsumoto and Last, 2016) Shorttail whipray

Maculabatis gerrardi (Gray, 1851) Whitespotted whipray

Maculabatis macrura (Bleeker, 2008) Sharpnose whipray

Maculabatis pastinacoides (Bleeker, 1852) Round whip ray

Maculabatis randalli – Arabian banded stingray

Himantura toshi (Whitley, 1939) Brown whipray

Makararaja chindwiensis (Roberts, 2007) Chindwin cowtail ray

Megatrygon microps (Annandale, 1908) Smalleye stingray

Neotrygon annotata (Last, 1987) Plain maskray

Neotrygon australiae – Australian bluespotted maskray

Neotrygon bobwardi – Bob Ward’s bluespotted maskray

Neotrygon caeruleopunctata – Bluespotted maskray

Neotrygon indica – Indian Ocean bluespotted maskray

Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller & Henle, 1841) Kuhl’s maskray

Neotrygon leylandi (Last, 1987) Painted maskray

Neotrygon malaccensis – Malacca Strait bluespotted maskray

Neotrygon moluccensis – Moluccan bluespotted maskray

Neotrygon ningalooensis (Last, White and Puckridge, 2010) Ningaloo maskray

Neotrygon orientalis – Oriental bluespotted maskray

Neotrygon picta (Last and White, 2008) Speckled maskray

Neotrygon trigonoides – Coral Sea maskray

Neotrygon vali – Guadalcanal maskray

Neotrygon varidens (Garman, 1885) Mahogony maskray

Neotrygon westpapuensis – West Papuan bluespotted maskray

Pastinachus ater – Broad cowtail stingray

Pastinachus gracilicaudus (Last and Matsumoto, 2010) Narrowtail stingray

Pastinachus sephen – Cowtail stingray

Pastinachus solocirostris (Last, Manjaji & Yearsley, 2005) Roughnose stingray

Pastinachus stellurostris (Last, Fahmi and Naylor 2010) starrynose cowtail ray

Pateobatis bleekeri (Blyth, 1860) Bleeker’s whipray

Pateobatis fai – Pink whipray

Pateobatis hortlei (Last, Matsumoto and Kailola, 2006) Hortle’s whipray

Pateobatis jenkinsii – Jenkin’s whipray

Pateobatis uarnacoides (Bleeker, 1852) Whitenose whipray

Pteroplatytrygon violacea – Pelagic stingray

Taeniura lessoni (Last, White and Naylor) Oceania fantail ray

Taeniura lymma – Bluespotted fantail ray

Taeniurops grabatus – Round stingray

Taeniurops meyeni – Blotched fantail ray

Telatrygon acutirostra – Sharpnose ray

Telatrygon biasa (Last, White and Naylor, 2016) Indonesian sharpnose ray

Telatrygon crozieri (Blyth, 1860) Indian sharpnose ray

Telatrygon zugei (Müller & Henle, 1841) Pale-edged stingray

Urogymnus acanthobothrium (Last, White and Kyne, 2016) Mumbararr whipray

Urogymnus asperrimus – Porcupine ray

Urogymnus dalyensis (Last and Matsumoto, 2008) Freshwater whipray

Urogymnus granulatus (Macleay, 1883) Mangrove whipray

Urogymnus lobistoma (Matsumoto and Last, 2006) Tubemouth whipray

Urogymnus polylepis (Bleeker, 1852) Giant freshwater whipray


Family GYMNURIDAE – Butterfly Rays

Gymnura altavela – Spiny butterfly ray

Gymnura australis (Ramsay & Ogilby, 1886) Australian butterfly ray

Gymnura crebripunctata – Longsnout butterfly ray

Gymnura japonica – Japanese butterfly ray

Gymnura Lessae – Lessa’s butterfly ray

Gymnura marmorata (Cooper, 1864) California butterfly ray

Gymnura micrura (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Smooth butterfly ray

Gymnura natalensis – Backwater butterfly ray

Gymnura poecilura (Shaw, 1804) Longtail butterfly ray

Gymnura Sereti – Seret’s butterfly ray

Gymnure tentaculata (Müller & Henle, 1841) Tentacle butterfly ray

Gymnura zonura (Bleeker, 1852) Zonetail butterfly ray


Family HEXATRYGONIDAE – Sixgill Stingrays

Hexatrygon bickelli (Heemstra & Smith, 1980) Sixgill stingray


Family MYLIOBATIDAE – Bat Rays and Eagle Rays

Aetomylaeus asperrimus (Gillbert, 1898) Roughskin eagle ray

Aetomylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St Hilaire, 1817) Duckbill eagle ray

Aetomylaeus caeruleofasciatus (White, Last and Baje, 2015) Bluebanded eagle ray

Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray, 1834) Mottled eagle ray

Aetomylaeus milvus (Müller & Henle, 1841) Ocellate eagle ray

Aetomylaeus nichofii (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Banded eagle ray

Aetomylaeus vespertilio (Bleeker, 1852) Ornate eagle ray

Myliobatis aquila – Common eagle ray

Myliobatis californicus – Bat ray

Myliobatis chilensis Philippi, 1893Chilean eagle ray

Myliobatis freminvillii – Bullnose eagle ray

Myliobatis goodei Garman, 1885Southern eagle ray

Myliobatis hamlyni Ogilby, 1911Purple eagle ray

Myliobatis longirostris Applegate & Fitch, 1964Snouted eagle ray

Myliobatis peruvianus (Garman, 1913) Peruvian eagle ray

Myliobatis ridens (Ruocco et al, 2012) Shortnose eagle ray

Myliobatis tenuicaudatus – New Zealand eagle ray

Myliobatis tobijei Bleeker, 1854Japanese eagle ray


Family MOBULIDAE – Devil Rays, Mobula Rays and Manta Rays

Manta alfredi – Reef Manta Ray

Manta birostris – Oceanic manta

Manta cf. birostris – Caribbean Manta Ray

Mobula hypostoma – Lesser devil ray

Mobula kuhlii (Müller & Henle, 1841) Shortfin devil ray

Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre, 1788) Devil fish

Mobula munkiana – Munk’s devil ray

Mobula tarapacana (Philippi, 1893) Chilean devil ray

Mobula thurstoni – Smoothtail mobula/Bentfin devil ray)


Family PLESIOBATIDAE – Giant Stingarees

Plesiobatis daviesi (Wallace, 1967) Giant Stingaree


Family POTAMOTRYGONIDAE – Freshwater/River Stingrays

Heliotrygon gomesi, n. sp. Carvalho and Lovejoy 2013

Heliotrygon rosai,n.sp. Carvalho and Lovejoy 2013

Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle, 1841) Discus ray

Paratrygon orinocensis – Orinoco discus ray

Paratrygon parvaspina – Smallspine discus ray

Plesiotrygon iwamae Rosa, Castello &Thorson, 1987 Long-tailed river stingray

Plesiotrygon nana Carvalho & Ragno, 2011 Black-tailed antenna ray

Potamotrygon albimaculata – Tapajós Freshwater Stingray (Carvalho 2016)

Potamotrygon amandae – Amanda’s Freshwater Stingray (Loboda & M. R. de Carvalho, 2013)

Potamotrygon boesemani Rosa, M. R. de Carvalho & Almeida Wanderley, 2008 Emperor ray

Potamotrygon brachyura (Günther, 1880) Short-tailed river stingray

Potamotrygon constellata – Rough Freshwater Stingray

Potamotrygon falkneri – Largespot river stingray

Potamotrygon henlei (Castelnau, 1855) Bigtooth river stingray

Potamotrygon histrix – Porcupine Freshwater Stingray

Potamotrygon humerosa Garman, 1913

Potamotrygon jabuti – Pearl Freshwater Stingray

Potamotrygon leopoldi – Xingu river stingray

Potamotrygon limai (Fontenelle, Silva and Carvalho)

Potamotrygon magdalenae (Valenciennes, 1865) Magdalena river stingray

Potamotrygon marquesi (Da Silva, 2019)

Potamotrygon marinae Deynat, 2006

Potamotrygon motoro – Ocellate river stingray

Potamotrygon ocellata (Engelhardt, 1912) Red-blotched river stingray

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau, 1855) Smooth back river stingray

Potamotrygon pantanensis Loboda & M. R. de Carvalho, 2013

Potamotrygon rex – Great River Stingray

Potamotrygon schroederi Fernández-Yépez, 1957 Rosette river stingray

Potamotrygon schuehmacheri Castex, 1964

Potamotrygon scobina Garman, 1913 Raspy river stingray

Potamotrygon signata – Parnaiba river stingray

Potamotrygon tatianae J. P. C. B. da Silva & M. R. de Carvalho, 2011

Potamotrygon tigrina M. R. de Carvalho, Sabaj Pérez & Lovejoy, 2011 Tiger ray

Potamotrygon wallacei – Wallace’s Freshwater Stingray

Potamotrygon yepezi Castex & Castello, 1970 Maracaibo river stingray

Styracura pacifica – Pacific chupare stingray

Styracura schmardae – Atlantic chupare stingray


Family RHINOPTERIDAE – Cownose Rays

Rhinoptera adspersa Müller & Henle, 1841Rough cownose ray

Rhinoptera bonasus – Atlantic Cownose ray

Rhinoptera brasiliensis Müller, 1836Ticon cownose ray

Rhinoptera javanica Müller & Henle, 1841Javanese cownose ray

Rhinoptera jayakari Boulenger, 1895Oman cownose ray

Rhinoptera marginata (Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1817)Lusitanian cownose ray

Rhinoptera neglecta Ogilby, 1912Australian cownose ray

Rhinoptera steindachneri Evermann & Jenkins, 1891Pacific cownose ray


Family UROLOPHIDAE – Indo-Pacific round stingrays (stingarees)

Spinilophus armatus (Muller & Henle, 1841) New Ireland stingaree

Trygonoptera galba (Last and Yearsley, 2008) Yellow shovelnose stingaree

Trygonoptera imitata – Eastern shovenose stingaree

Trygonoptera mucosa – Western shovelnose stingaree

Trygonoptera ovalis – Striped stingaree

Trygonoptera personata – Masked stingaree

Trygonoptera testacea – Common stingaree

Urolophus aurantiacus – Sepia stingray

Urolophus bucculentus (Macleay, 1884) Sandyback stingaree

Urolophus circularis – Circular stingaree

Urolophus cruciatus – Banded stingaree

Urolophus deforgesi (Seret and Last, 2003) Chesterfield stingaree

Urolophus expansus (McCulloch, 1916) Wide stingaree

Urolophus flavomosaicus (Last & Gomon, 1987) Patchwork stingaree

Urolophus gigas – Spotted stingaree

Urolophus javanicus (Martens, 1864) Java stingaree

Urolophus kaianus (Gunther, 1880) Kai stingaree

Urolophus kapalensis – Kapala stingaree

Urolophus lobatus (McKay, 1966) Lobed stingaree

Urolophus mitosis (Last & Gomon, 1987) Mitotic stingaree

Urolophus neocaledoniensis (seret and Last, 2003) New Caledonian Stingaree

Urolophus orarius (Last & Gomon, 1987) Coastal stingaree

Urolophus papillio (Seret and Last, 2003) Butterfly stingaree

Urolophus paucimaculatus – Sparsely-spotted stingaree

Urolophus piperatus (Seret and Last, 2003) Coral Sea stingaree

Urolophus sufflavus (Whitley, 1929) Yellowback stingaree

Urolophus viridis (McCulloch, 1916) Greenback stingaree

Urolophus westraliensis (Last & Gomon, 1987) Brown stingaree


Family UROTRYGONIDAE – Pan-American round stingrays

Urobatis concentricus – Bullseye round stingray

Urobatis halleri – Haller’s round stingray

Urobatis jamaicensis – Yellow stingray

Urobatis maculatus – Cortez round stingray

Urobatis pardalis – Leopard round stingray

Urobatis tumbesensis (Chirichigno F. & McEachran, 1979) Tumbes round stingray

Urotrygon aspidura – Spinytail round ray

Urotrygon chilensis – Chilean round ray

Urotrygon cimar (Lopez S. & Bussing, 1998)

Urotrygon microphthalmum (Delsman, 1941) Smalleyed round stingray

Urotrygon munda (Gill, 1863) Munda round ray

Urotrygon nana (Miyake & McEachran, 1988) Dwarf round ray

Urotrygon reticulata (Miyake & McEachran, 1988) Reticulate round ray

Urotrygon rogersi – Roger’s round ray

Urotrygon simulatrix (Miyake & McEachran, 1988) Fake round ray

Urotrygon venezuelae (Schultz, 1949) Venezuela round stingray

Order RAJIFORMES - Skates


Anacanthobatis marmoratus – Spotted legskate

Indobatis ori – Black legskate

Schroederobatis americana – American legskate

Sinobatis andamanensis Andaman legskate

Sinobatis borneensis Borneo legskate

Sinobatis brevicauda – Short-tail legskate

Sinobatis bulbicauda – Western Australian legskate

Sinobatis caerulea – Blue legskate

Sinobatis filicauda – Eastern Australian legskate

Sinobatis kotlyari Kotlyar’s legskate

Sinobatis melanosoma Black-bodied legskate

Sinobatis stenosoma Narrow leg skate

Springeria folirostris – Leafnose legskate

Springeria longirostris – Longnose legskate


Family ARHYNCHOBATIDAE – Softnose Skates

Arhynchobatis asperrimus –  Longtail skate

Atlantoraja castelnaui Spotback skate

Atlantoraja cyclophora Eyespot skate

Atlantoraja platana La Plata skate

Bathyraja abyssicola Deep-sea skate

Bathyraja aguja Aguja skate

Bathyraja albomaculata White-dotted skate

Bathyraja aleutica Aleutian skate

Bathyraja andriashevi Little-eyed skate

Bathyraja bergi – Bottom skate

Bathyraja brachyurops Broadnose skate

Bathyraja Chapmani – Chapman’s Skate

Bathyraja cousseauae Joined-fins skate

Bathyraja diplotaenia Dusky-pink skate

Bathyraja eatonii Eaton’s skate

Bathyraja fedorovi Cinnamon skate

Bathyraja griseocauda Graytail skate

Bathyraja hesperafricana West African skate

Bathyraja interrupta Bering skate

Bathyraja irrasa Kerguelen sandpaper skate

Bathyraja ishiharai – Abyssal skate

Bathyraja isotrachys Raspback skate

Bathyraja kincaidii – Sandpaper skate

Bathyraja leucomelanos Domino Skate

Bathyraja lindbergi Commander skate

Bathyraja longicauda Slimtail skate

Bathyraja maccaini McCain’s skate

Bathyraja macloviana Patagonian skate

Bathyraja maculata White-blotched skate

Bathyraja magellanica Magellan skate

Bathyraja mariposa Butterfly skate

Bathyraja matsubarai Dusky-purple skate

Bathyraja meridionalis Dark-belly skate

Bathyraja microtrachys – Finespine skate

Bathyraja minispinosa Smallthorn skate

Bathyraja multispinis Multispine skate

Bathyraja murrayi Murray’s skat)

Bathyraja notoroensis Notoro skate

Bathyraja pacifica – Pacific blonde skate

Bathyraja pallida Pallid skate

Bathyraja panthera Leopard skate

Bathyraja papilionifera Atlantic Butterfly skate

Bathyraja parmifera Alaska skate

Bathyraja peruana Peruvian skate

Bathyraja richardsoni Richardson’s skate

Bathyraja scaphiops Cuphead skate

Bathyraja schroederi Whitemouth skate

Bathyraja shuntovi Narrownose skate

Bathyraja simoterus Hokkaido skate

Bathyraja smirnovi Golden skate

Bathyraja smithii African softnose skate

Bathyraja spinicauda Spinytail skate

Bathyraja spinosissima – Pacific white skate)

Bathyraja taranetzi – Mud skate

Bathyraja trachouros Eremo skate

Bathyraja trachura Roughtail skate

Bathyraja tunae – Cristina’s skate

Bathyraja tzinovskii Creamback skate

Bathyraja violacea Okhotsk skate

Brochiraja aenigma Enigma skate

Brochiraja albilabiata – Whitelip skate

Brochiraja asperula Smooth deepsea skate

Brochiraja heuresa – Eureka skate

Brochiraja leviveneta – Blue deep-sea skate

Brochiraja microspinifera – Small deep-sea skate

Brochiraja spinifera Prickly deep-sea skate

Brochiraja vittacauda – Ribbontail skate

Insentiraja laxipella Eastern looseskin skate

Insentiraja subtilispinosa Western looseskin skate

Irolita waitii – Southern round skate

Irolita westraliensis – Western round skate

Notoraja alisae Alis’ velvet skate

Notoraja azurea Blue skate

Notoraja fijiensis Fijian velvet skate

Notoraja hirticauda Australian ghost skate

Notoraja inusitata Strange skate

Notoraja lira Broken Ridge skate

Notoraja longiventralis Longlobe velvet skate

Notoraja martinezi Barbedwire-tailed skate

Notoraja ochroderma Pale skate

Notoraja sapphira Sapphire skate

Notoraja sereti Papuan velvet skate

Notoraja sticta Blotched skate

Notoraja tobitukai Lead-hued skate

Pavoraja alleni Allen’s skate

Pavoraja arenaria Australian sandy skate

Pavoraja mosaica Mosaic skate

Pavoraja nitida Peacock Skate

Pavoraja pseudonitida False peacock skate

Pavoraja umbrosa Dusky skate

Psammobatis bergi Blotched sand skate

Psammobatis extenta Zipper sand skate

Psammobatis lentiginosa Freckled sand skate

Psammobatis normani Shortfin sand skate

Psammobatis parvacauda Smalltail sand skate

Psammobatis rudis Smallthorn sand skate

Psammobatis rutrum Spade sand skate

Psammobatis scobina Raspthorn sand skate

Pseudoraja fischeri – Fanfin skate

Rhinoraja kujiensis Dapple-bellied softnose skate

Rhinoraja longicauda White-bellied softnose skate

Rhinoraja odai – Oda’s skate

Rioraja agassizi – Rio skate

Sympterygia acuta Bignose fanskate

Sympterygia bonapartii Smallnose fanskate

Sympterygia brevicaudata Shorttail fanskate

Sympterygia lima Filetail fanskate


Family GURGESIELLIDAE – Pygmy Skates

Cruriraja andamanica Andaman pygmy skate

Cruriraja atlantis Atlantic pygmy skate

Cruriraja cadenati Broadfoot pygmy skate

Cruriraja durbanensis Smoothnose pygmy skate

Cruriraja hulleyi – Hulley’s pygmy skate

Cruriraja parcomaculata Roughnose pygmy skate

Cruriraja poeyi Poey’s pygmy skate

Cruriraja rugosa Rough pygmy skate

Fenestraja atripinna Blackfin pygmy skate

Fenestraja cubensis Cuban pygmy skate

Fenestraja ishiyamai Plain pygmy skate

Fenestraja maceachrani Madagascar pygmy skate

Fenestraja mamillidens Prickly pygmy skate

Fenestraja plutonia Pluto pygmy skate

Fenestraja sibogae Siboga pygmy skate

Fenestraja sinusmexicanus Gulf of Mexico pygmy skate

Gurgesiella atlantica Atlantic finless skate)

Gurgesiella dorsalifera  – Onefin skate

Gurgesiella furvescens Dusky finless skate


Family RAJIDAE – Hardnose Skates

Amblyraja doellojuradoi – Southern thorny skate

Amblyraja frerichsi – Thickbody skate

Amblyraja georgiana – Antarctic starry skate

Amblyraja hyperborea – Boreal skate

Amblyraja jenseni – Jensen’s skate

Amblyraja radiata – Thorny skate

Amblyraja reversa – Reverse skate

Amblyraja taaf – Whiteleg skate

Beringraja binoculata – Big skate

Beringraja pulchra – Mottled skate

Breviraja claramaculata Brightspot skate

Breviraja colesi Lightnose skate

Breviraja marklei Nova Scotia Skate

Breviraja mouldi Mould’s Skate

Breviraja nigriventralis Blackbelly skate

Breviraja spinosa Spinose skate

Caliraja cortezensis – Cortez skate

Caliraja inornata – California skate

Caliraja rhina – Longnose skate

Caliraja stellulata – Starry skate

Dactylobatus armatus Skillet skate

Dactylobatus clarkii Hook skate

Dentiraja australis – Sydney skate

Dentiraja cerva – Whitespotted skate

Dentiraja confusa Australian longnose skate

Dentiraja endeavouri Endeavour skate

Dentiraja falloarga False argus skate

Dentiraja flindersi Pygmy thornback skate

Dentiraja healdi Heald’s skate

Dentiraja lemprieri Australian thornback skate

Dentiraja oculata – Australian ocellate skate

Dentiraja polyommata Argus skate

Dipturus acrobelus Australian deepwater skate

Dipturus amphispinus Ridgeback skate

Dipturus apricus Pale tropical skate

Dipturus batis Common blue skate

Dipturus bullisi Tortugas skate

Dipturus campbelli Blackspot skate

Dipturus canutus Grey skate

Dipturus chinensis Polkadot/Chinese skate

Dipturus crosnieri Madagascar skate

Dipturus doutrei Javelin skate

Dipturus ecuadoriensis Ecuador skate

Dipturus flavirostris – ?

Dipturus garricki San Blas skate

Dipturus gigas Giant skate

Dipturus grahami Graham’s skate

Dipturus gudgeri Bight skate

Dipturus innominatus New Zealand smooth skate

Dipturus intermedius Flapper skate

Dipturus johannisdavisi Travancore skate

Dipturus kwangtungensis Kwangtung skate

Dipturus laevis Barndoor skate

Dipturus lamillai – ?

Dipturus lanceorostratus Rattail skate

Dipturus leptocauda Thintail skate

Dipturus macrocauda Bigtail skate

Dipturus melanospilus Blacktip skate

Dipturus mennii Menni’s skate

Dipturus nidarosiensis Norwegian skate

Dipturus olseni Spreadfin skat)

Dipturus oregoni Hooktail skate

Dipturus oxyrinchus Sharpnose skate

Dipturus pullopunctatus Slime skate

Dipturus queenslandicus Queensland deepwater skate

Dipturus springeri Roughbelly skate

Dipturus stenorhynchus Prownose skate

Dipturus teevani Caribbean skate

Dipturus tengu Acutenose skate

Dipturus trachyderma Roughskin skate

Dipturus wengi Weng’s skate

Dipturus wuhanlingi Wu’s skate

Hongeo koreana – Korean skate

Leucoraja caribbaea – Maya skate ?

Leucoraja circularis Sandy skate

Leucoraja elainae Elaine’s skate

Leucoraja erinacea Little skate

Leucoraja fullonica Shagreen skate

Leucoraja garmani Rosette skate

Leucoraja lentiginosa Freckle skate

Leucoraja leucosticta White dappled skate

Leucoraja melitensis Maltese skate

Leucoraja naevus Cuckoo skate

Leucoraja ocellata Winter skate

Leucoraja pristispina Sawback skate

Leucoraja virginica Virginia skate ?

Leucoraja wallacei Yellowspotted skate

Leucoraja yucatanensis Yucatán skate

Malacoraja kreffti Krefft’s skate

Malacoraja obscura Brazilian soft skate

Malacoraja senta Smooth skate

Malacoraja spinacidermis Prickle skate

Neoraja africana West African dwarf skate

Neoraja caerulea – Blue dwarf skate

Neoraja carolinensis Carolina dwarf skate

Neoraja iberica Iberian dwarf skate

Neoraja stehmanni South African dwarf skate

Okamejei acutispina Sharpspine skate

Okamejei arafurensis Arafura skate

Okamejei boesemani Boeseman’s / Black sand skate

Okamejei cairae Borneo sand skate

Okamejei heemstrai East African / Narrow skate

Okamejei hollandi Holland/Yellow-spotted skate

Okamejei kenojei Ocellate spot skate

Okamejei leptoura Australian thintail skate

Okamejei meerdervoortii Bigeye skate

Okamejei mengae – Meng’s skate

Okamejei ornata Ornate skate

Okamejei panayensis Philippine skate

Okamejei picta – Finespotted Skate

Okamejei pita Pita skate ?

Okamejei schmidti Browneye skate

Orbiraja jensenae Sulu Ring skate

Orbiraja philipi Aden Ring skate

Orbiraja powelli Indian ring skate

Raja asterias Atlantic starry skate

Raja brachyura Blonde skate

Raja clavata Thornback skate

Raja cyanoplax – ?

Raja herwigi Cape Verde skate

Raja maderensis Madeira skjate

Raja mauritaniensis African skate

Raja microocellata Smalleyed skate

Raja miraletus Brown skate

Raja montagui Spotted skate

Raja ocellifera – Twineye skate

Raja parva African brown skate

Raja polystigma Speckle skate

Raja radula Mediterranean rough skate

Raja straeleni Biscuit skate

Raja undulata Undulate skate

Rajella annandalei Annandale’s/Indonesian skate

Rajella barnardi Bigthorn skate

Rajella bathyphila Deepwater skate

Rajella bigelowi Bigelow’s skate

Rajella caudaspinosa Munchkin skate

Rajella challengeri Challenger Skate

Rajella dissimilis Ghost skate

Rajella eisenhardti Galápagos skate

Rajella fuliginea Sooty skate

Rajella fyllae Round skate

Rajella kukujevi Mid-Atlantic Skate

Rajella leopardus Leopard skate

Rajella lintea Sail skate

Rajella nigerrima Blackish skate

Rajella paucispinosa Sparsely-thorned skate

Rajella purpuriventralis Purplebelly skate

Rajella ravidula Smoothback skate

Rajella sadowskii Brazilian skate

Rostroraja ackleyi Ocellate skate

Rostroraja alba White skate

Rostroraja bahamensis Bahama skate

Rostroraja cervigoni – Venezuela skate

Rostroraja eglanteria Clearnose skate

Rostroraja equatorialis Equatorial skate

Rostroraja texana Roundel skate

Rostroraja velezi Rasptail skate

Spiniraja whitleyi – Melbourne skate

Zearaja argentinensis Argentine skate

Zearaja chilensis Yellownose skate

Zearaja maugeana Maugean skate

Zearaja nasuta New Zealand rough skate

Order RHINOPRISTIFORMES - Guitarfishes, Sawfishes

Family GLAUCOSTEGIDAE — Giant Guitarfishes

Glaucostegus cemiculus Blackchin guitarfish

Glaucostegus granulatus Sharpnose guitarfish

Glaucostegus halavi Halavi guitarfish

Glaucostegus obtusus Widenose guitarfish

Glaucostegus thouin Clubnose guitarfish

Glaucostegus typus Giant guitarfish


Family PLATYRHINIDAE – Thornback Rays

Platyrhina hyugaensis – Hyuga Fanray

Platyrhina psomadakisi – Indian Fanray

Platyrhina sinensis – Chinese Fanray

Platyrhina tangi – Yellowspotted Fanray

Platyrhinoidis triseriata – Thornback guitarfish


Family PRISTIDAE – Sawfishes

Anoxypristis cuspidata – Narrow Sawfish

Pristis clavata – Dwarf sawfish

Pristis pectinata – Smalltooth sawfish

Pristis pristis – Largetooth sawfish

Pristis zijsron – Green Sawfish

Family RHINOBATIDAE – Guitarfishes

Acroteriobatus andysabini – Malagasy blue-spotted guitarfish

Acroteriobatus annulatus Lesser guitarfish

Acroteriobatus blochii Bluntnose guitarfish

Acroteriobatus leucospilus Grayspotted guitarfish

Acroteriobatus ocellatus Speckled guitarfish

Acroteriobatus omanensis Oman guitarfish

Acroteriobatus salalah Salalah guitarfish

Acroteriobatus stehmanni – Socotra blue-spotted guitarfish

Acroteriobatus variegatus Stripenose guitarfish

Acroteriobatus zanzibarensis Zanzibar guitarfish

Pseudobatos buthi Spadenose guitarfish

Pseudobatos glaucostigmus – Speckled guitarfish

Pseudobatos horkelii Brazilian guitarfish

Pseudobatos lentiginosus Atlantic guitarfish

Pseudobatos leucorhynchus Whitesnout guitarfish

Pseudobatos percellens Chola guitarfish

Pseudobatos planiceps Pacific guitarfish

Pseudobatos prahli Gorgona guitarfish

Pseudobatos productus Shovelnose guitarfish

Rhinobatos albomaculatus – White-spotted guitarfish

Rhinobatos annandalei Bengal guitarfish

Rhinobatos borneensis Borneo guitarfish

Rhinobatos holcorhynchus Slender guitarfish

Rhinobatos hynnicephalus Ringed guitarfish

Rhinobatos irvinei Spineback guitarfish

Rhinobatos jimbaranensis Jimbaran guitarfish

Rhinobatos lionotus Smoothback guitarfish

Rhinobatos manai – Papuan guitarfish

Rhinobatos nudidorsalis Bareback guitarfish

Rhinobatos penggali Indonesian guitarfish

Rhinobatos punctifer Spotted guitarfish

Rhinobatos rhinobatos Common guitarfish

Rhinobatos sainsburyi Goldeneye guitarfish

Rhinobatos schlegelii Bottlenose guitarfish

Rhinobatos whitei Philippine guitarfish


Family RHYNCHOBATIDAE – Sharkfin Guitarfishes

Rhina ancylostoma Shark ray

Rhynchobatus australiae Bottlenose wedgefish

Rhynchobatus cooki Roughnose wedgefish

Rhynchobatus djiddensis Whitespotted wedgefish

Rhynchobatus immaculatus Taiwanese wedgefish

Rhynchobatus laevis Smoothnose wedgefish

Rhynchobatus luebberti African wedgefish

Rhynchobatus mononoke Japanese wedgefish

Rhynchobatus palpebratus Eyebrow wedgefish

Rhynchobatus springeri Broadnose wedgefish

Rhynchorhina mauritaniensis False shark ray



Aptychotrema rostrata Eastern shovelnose ray

Aptychotrema timorensis Spotted shovelnose ray

Aptychotrema vincentiana Western shovelnose ray

Trygonorrhina dumerilii Southern fiddler ray

Trygonorrhina fasciata Eastern fiddler ray

Zapteryx brevirostris Shortnose guitarfish

Zapteryx exasperata Banded guitarfish

Zapteryx xyster Southern banded guitarfish


Family ZANOBATIDAE – Panrays

Zanobatus maculatus – Maculate panray

Zanobatus schoenleinii Striped panray

Order TORPEDINIFORMES - Electric rays

Family HYPNIDAE – Coffin Rays

Hypnos monopterygius – Coffin ray


Family NARCINIDAE – Electric Rays

Benthobatis kreffti – Brazilian blind electric ray

Benthobatis marcida – blind torpedo

Benthobatis moresbyi Dark blind ray

Benthobatis yangi Taiwanese blind electric ray

Diplobatis colombiensis – Colombian electric ray

Diplobatis guamachensis – Brownband numbfish

Diplobatis ommata – Bullseye electric ray

Diplobatis picta – Painted electric ray

Discopyge castelloi – Atlantic Apron Ray

Discopyge tschudii – Pacific Apron Ray

Narcine atzi Atz’s numbfish

Narcine baliensis – Bali numfish

Narcine bancroftii – Lesser electric ray

Narcine brasiliensis – Brazilian electric ray

Narcine brevilabiata – Short-lip electric ray

Narcine brunnea – Brown numbfish

Narcine entemedor – Giant electric ray

Narcine insolita – Madagascar numbfish

Narcine lasti – Western numbfish

Narcine leoparda – Leopard electric ray

Narcine lingula – Chinese numbfish

Narcine maculata Dark-finned numbfish

Narcine nelsoni – Eastern numbfish

Narcine oculifera – Bigeye electric ray

Narcine ornata – Ornate numbfish

Narcine prodorsalis – Tonkin numbfish

Narcine rierai – Slender electric ray

Narcine tasmaniensis – Tasmanian numbfish

Narcine timlei – Spotted numbfish

Narcine vermiculatus – Vermiculate electric ray

Narcine westraliensis – Banded numbfish


Family NARKIDAE – Sleeper Rays

Crassinarke dormitor – Sleeper torpedo

Electrolux addisoni – Ornate sleeper-ray

Heteronarce bentuviai – Elat electric ray

Heteronarce garmani – Natal electric ray

Heteronarce mollis Soft electric ray

Heteronarce prabhui Quilon electric ray

Narke capensis – Onefin electric ray

Narke dipterygia – Numbray

Narke japonica – Japanese sleeper ray

Temera hardwickii – Finless sleeper ray

Typhlonarke aysoni – Blind electric ray

Typhlonarke tarakea – Oval electric ray


Family TORPEDINIDAE – Torpedo Rays

Tetronarce californica – Pacific torpedo ray

Tetronarce cowleyi – Cowley’s torpedo ray

Tetronarce fairchildi – New Zealand torpedo

Tetronarce formosa – Taiwan torpedo

Tetronarce macneilli – Shorttail torpedo

Tetronarce nobiliana – Atlantic torpedo

Tetronarce occidentalis – Western Atlantic torpedo

Tetronarce puelcha – Argentine torpedo

Tetronarce tokionis – Trapezoid torpedo

Tetronarce tremens – Chilean torpedo

Torpedo adenensis – Aden Gulf torpedo

Torpedo alexandrinsis – Alexandrine torpedo

Torpedo andersoni – Florida torpedo

Torpedo bauchotae – Rosette torpedo

Torpedo fuscomaculata – Black-spotted torpedo

Torpedo mackayana – West African torpedo ray

Torpedo marmorata – Marbled electric ray

Torpedo panthera – Panther torpedo

Torpedo sinuspersici – Persian Gulf torpedo

Torpedo suessii – Red Sea torpedo

Torpedo torpedo – Common torpedo

Torpedo tremens – Chilean torpedo

Torpedo sp. – Brownspotted torpedo

Torpedo sp. – Whitespotted torpedo

Subclass Holocephali: Chimaeras

Order CHIMAERIFORMES - Chimaeras

Family CALLORHINCHIDAE – Plownose Chimaeras

Callorhinchus callorynchus – Plownose chimaera

Callorhinchus capensis – Cape elephantfish

Callorhinchus milii – Australian ghost shark


Family CHIMAERIDAE – Shortnose Chimaeras

Chimaera argiloba – Whitefin chimaera

Chimaera bahamaensis – Bahamas ghostshark

Chimaera cubana – Cuban chimaera

Chimaera fulva – Southern chimaera

Chimaera jordani – Jordan’s chimaera

Chimaera lignaria – Carpenter’s chimaera

Chimaera macrospina – Longspine chimaera

Chimaera monstrosa – Rabbit fish

Chimaera notafricana – Cape chimaera

Chimaera obscura – Shortspine chimaera

Chimaera owstoni – Owston’s chimaera

Chimaera panthera – Leopard chimaera

Chimaera phantasma – Silver chimaera

Hydrolagus affinis – Small-eyed rabbitfish

Hydrolagus africanus – African chimaera

Hydrolagus alberti – Gulf chimaera

Hydrolagus alphus – Whitespot ghost shark

Hydrolagus barbouri – Ninespot chimaera

Hydrolagus bemisi – Pale ghost shark

Hydrolagus colliei – Spotted ratfish

Hydrolagus deani – Philippine chimaera

Hydrolagus eidolon – (D. S. Jordan & C. L. Hubbs, 1925)

Hydrolagus homonycteris – Black ghostshark

Hydrolagus lemures – Bight ghostshark

Hydrolagus lusitanicus – Portuguese rabbitfish

Hydrolagus macrophthalmus – Bigeye chimaera

Hydrolagus marmoratus – Marbled ghostshark

Hydrolagus matallanasi – Striped rabbitfish

Hydrolagus mccoskeri – Galápagos ghostshark

Hydrolagus melanophasma – Eastern Pacific black ghostshark

Hydrolagus mirabilis – Large-eyed rabbitfish

Hydrolagus mitsukurii – Spookfish

Hydrolagus novaezealandiae – Dark ghostshark

Hydrolagus ogilbyi – Ogilby’s ghostshark

Hydrolagus pallidus – Pale chimaera

Hydrolagus purpurescens – Purple chimaera

Hydrolagus trolli – Pointy-nosed blue chimaera

Hydrolagus waitei – Fowler, 1907

Hydrolagus sp. – D/G (Giant black chimaera)

Hydrolagus sp. – F (Peruvian rabbitfish)


Family RHINCHIMAERIDAE – Longnose Chimaeras

Harriotta haeckeli – Smallspine spookfish

Harriotta raleighana – bentnose rabbitfish

Neoharriotta carri – Dwarf Sicklefin Chimaera

Neoharriotta pinnata – Sicklefin Chimaera

Neoharriotta pumila – Arabian Sicklefin Chimaera

Rhinochimaera africana – Paddle-nose chimaera

Rhinochimaera atlantica – Knifenose chimaera

Rhinochimaera pacifica – Pacific spookfish